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Συμμετοχή του Πανεπιστημίου Ιωαννίνων (Τμήμα Φυτικής Παραγωγής) σε συνεργασία με το University of Illinois, Pennsylvania State University, University of Wisconsin, Oregon State University, University of Delaware, Cornell University, USDA-ARS και της Del Monte Co., USA στο συνέδριο της North Central Weed Science Society, USA με θέμα: “Weed Surveys of Snap Bean Fields in Midwest Production Systems. Πρόκειται για μια τριετή έρευνα που διεξήχθη σε 12 Πολιτείες των ΗΠΑ (βλέπε επισυναπτόμενο αρχείο) σε αγρούς ψυχανθών (Phaseolus spp.) αναφορικά με την παρουσία, τον πληθυσμό και τις επιπτώσεις ζημιογόνων ζιζανίων στην παραγωγή της καλλιέργειας σε σχέση με τις μεθόδους καταπολέμηση τους τα αποτελέσματα της οποίας ανακοινώθηκαν στο προαναφερόμενο Συνέδριο. Η περίληψη της έρευνας παρατίθεται παρακάτω: 

Snap bean represents various cultivars of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Unlike common bean, which is grown for seed, snap bean is grown for young, immature fruits (pods). As of 2021, extent of snap bean production in the United States was 72,300 ha. From 2019-2022, snap bean fields were surveyed for residual weeds near the time of harvest in major production areas throughout the U.S. A total of 203, 60, and 50 fields were surveyed in the Midwest, Western, and Eastern regions, respectively. Management records also were obtained for a majority of fields. A variety of weed species escape control in snap bean, as evidenced by =59 species observed for each region. Certain weed species were commonly observed regardless of the region, including common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.), large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.), and amaranth species (Amaranthus spp.). In the Midwest region, carpetweed (Mollugo verticillate L.) and ivyleaf morningglory (Ipomoea hederacea Jacq.) also were frequently observed. In the Western region, shepherd’s-purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik), common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris L.), and nightshade species (Solanum spp.) also were frequently observed. In the Eastern region, ivyleaf speedwell (Veronica hederifolia L.), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.), and field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.) also were frequently observed. Two primary mechanical weed control practices used often were tillage and row cultivation. In the Midwest region, fall tillage combined with the spring tillage was used in 24% of fields, while spring tillage alone was the predominant tillage practice. Use of row cultivation varied by region. Row cultivation was employed on 77, 23, and 37% of fields in the Midwest, Western, and Eastern regions, respectively. Even though mechanical weed control practices were generally employed often, chemical weed control was still used on all the fields, reflecting the popularity of herbicide application in snap bean production. Regardless of region, the four most used herbicide mode of action groups were: VLCFA inhibitors (Group 15), ALS inhibitors (Group 2), PS II inhibitors (Group 6) and PPO inhibitors (Group 14). Microtubule assembly inhibitors (Group 3) were also used frequently in the Western region. Regarding PRE herbicides specifically, S-metolachlor and EPTC were most common. Additional commonly used herbicides were fomesafen (27% of fields) and imazethapyr (29%) in Midwest region, trifluralin (42%) in the Western region, and halosulfuron-methyl (59%) and trifluralin (18%) in the Eastern region. For POST herbicides specifically, bentazon was used widely (between 32-81% of fields, depending on the region), as well as imazamox (61%) and fomesafen (44%) in the Western and Eastern regions, respectively. The weed survey data showed that C. album, P. oleracea, D. sanguinalis and different Amaranthus spp. were the most common, meaning that growers should be especially on the lookout for these species. These weeds (especially amaranth species) are the most likely ones to cause problems in snap bean production. Weed management data shows that integrated weed management tactics should be employed more frequently, while the herbicide active ingredient spectrum should be broadened.